Constructing a building is a complex and layered process that requires order, the necessary expertise, and planning for you to realize the best possible results.
Here is a guide to inform you of the major steps involved during the construction process.
It is important to identify and acquire a suitable piece of land in an area where you are interested in constructing a building. When choosing a plot of land, ensure its boundaries are clearly marked and that it is free from any land-related and ownership issues.
Do some research to get more details about the actual cost of the piece of land, and get assistance from a real estate agent and any other involved parties you can reach.
When acquiring a piece of land, you need to find out its planned use and further planning consent from the city or local authority.
Hire an architect to help you settle on a building design and other drawings before you make the choice that suits your preferences and budget well. An architect has the necessary expertise to help you create the ideal business plan according to your requirements and other relevant factors.
An architect will consult with the structural engineer and the contractor to settle other technical aspects such as the type of foundation, its size, footing, depth and column size.
Constructing a building takes a significant number of finances and resources. Architects, quantity surveyors and engineers will be able to determine the quantity of materials needed for construction work and labor to realize your vision of a finished building.
They will create an abstract sheet that breaks down the construction cost of the building, and you will have a budget within which to work.
Before starting construction, it is important for your architect to perform due diligence by seeking permission from the relevant local authorities and regulatory organizations.
Some of the documentation you may need for a building project to be approved include a land survey, land records, elevation drawings, and an architect certification.
Selecting the right contractor or builder for your project is a crucial step toward meeting your standards and budgetary expectations.
Try to investigate any previous work done by a contractor before enlisting them for your own project. Once you are satisfied with their caliber of work, it is then important to engage them with a written contract document.
The contract should include information about your planned specifications, payment terms, expenses, and deadlines. Before finalizing the deal, get a separate party to examine your contractual terms so that you are not disadvantaged.
The safety of the public and workers on your construction site is paramount during the construction of buildings. Therefore, the next step should be securing the area as best as you can.
Experts advise erecting fences around the construction site to protect the public. Ensure you have some first aid resources, electrical access, toilet facilities and other amenities on the site to facilitate the planned operations.
It is important to clear the site in readiness for construction. This involves removal of rubbish, debris, equipment, machinery, pools of water and any other unwanted materials. Some of this work may require approval from local authorities. Get some guidance from your contractor before embarking on this work.
You will likely require a waste management plan to ensure cleared items are disposed of legally and ethically.
Other aspects of site preparation include soil stabilization, construction of access routes and demolition of unwanted structures.
This involves the removal of the earth to form a cavity in the ground. This can be done using shovels, picks, wheelbarrows, and heavy plant machinery for larger plots of land.
A foundation is built according to an architect’s drawings which quote its length, size, depth, width and type. Soil testing is important to determine the weight-bearing capacity of the soil.
This is a reinforced concrete block that supports a building’s sub-columns and pillars, and it is built between a foundation and the walls of a building. The plinth beam transmits the load of the upper structure into the foundation.
Soil removed during excavation is restored back into the foundation which strengthens it and supports other structural elements.
This involves processes like framing and masonry work through which the physical structure of a building is created.
Framing is the use of wooden frames and steel beams to support the part of the building around ground level. While time-consuming, it is a crucial part of construction because it creates the groundwork for the rest of the structure.
Masonry work involves the use of materials like stone, bricks and concrete blocks and joining them with cement mortar while leaving appropriately sized gaps for doors, windows and other openings according to architectural drawings.
Masonry work is used to construct walls and other surfaces that frame the house and provide elevation.
Roofing is done using different materials like iron sheet, tiles and a reinforced concrete slab to protect the interior from damage, disruptions and weather elements.
Plastering is done to give the interior and exterior walls the desired finish while protecting them against moisture penetration, and the effects of weather and to extend the useful service life of a building.
Some masonry work may not require this step of the building process, such as stone masonry.
HVAC systems, electrical wiring, and plumbing systems are then installed to make sure a building has practical utilities. These include roof drains, air conditioning, ventilation, lighting, gas lines, water and waste pipes and internet cables are run through the walls before they are finished.
A desired undercoat and a top coat of paint gives a building a beautiful finish and protects the surface from prolonged exposure to sunlight, rain, dirt and stains.
This involves installing any insulation materials, drywall, and ceilings. Waterproofing is done to slab rooftops to protect it from the effects of weathering.
A plumber and an electrician can install the necessary fixtures like sinks, taps, faucets, drainage covers, lights and sockets.
This involves the disassembly, removal and cleaning up of any offices, supplies, personnel and equipment that was used solely for construction and serves no further purpose for the finished building.
It also involves the contractor taking away any crew, equipment and belongings away from the construction site, leaving the homeowner with a clear site.
It is important for a construction team to do a thorough walkthrough to ensure that all the previous specifications have been fulfilled and that all parts of the building are as fully functional as expected.
Thisis a drawing created and submitted by a contractor after the construction process is complete. Such a drawing is meant to capture any changes to the original design that may have emerged as a result of inevitable issues that arose during the construction process.
This involves placing furniture and other loose items like decorations and accessories in their rightful place so that the finished building can begin to meet its intended purpose after being furnished with all the necessary fittings.
All garbage and debris that was accumulated during the construction process are cleared from the building. Any other final touches needed to complete the building are then carried out at this stage.
Building construction is a life-long investment expected to yield benefits for years into the future. Therefore, ensure you use professional services from your architect, engineers, contractor, and builders.
Having professional workers will ensure less time and resources wasted, and that you end up with a building that you feel satisfied and proud of having.
Ensure all the steps are followed logically and orderly for the best possible outcome, and remember to let wet parts fully cure before further construction goes on.